Bipolar disorder is a situation where a person may experience drastic changes in mood. The mood will alternate between mania and depression. The mania phase is when the person exhibits a sudden burst of energy and excitement. The depression phase usually involves periods of sadness and hopelessness.
These sudden mood changes can affect how a person performs during daily activities and interaction with others. It may also lead to thoughts of suicide, and this increases the risk of suicide among such people.
This condition may sometimes be referred to as manic depression, and the symptoms will vary based on the mood phase the person is currently experiencing.
The symptoms of a manic or hypomanic state include
- An increase in the activity level of a person
- Quick speech which is not understood
- Getting annoyed easily
- Taking unnecessary risks
- Excess energy
For a depressive state, symptoms may include
- Thoughts of suicide
- Loss of interest
- Sleep related problems
There are lots of other symptoms for the different moods, but those listed above are some common pointers to indicate bipolar disorder.
Types of bipolar disorder
There are different types of bipolar disorder which different individuals may experience. Two of the most common bipolar disorders experienced include;
Bipolar I disorder; this has to do with periods of critical episodes involving the mood from mania to depression
Bipolar II disorder: This is a form of mood elevation which is milder. It involves less intense hypomania episodes that alternate between moments of intense depression.
Cyclothymic disorder: this has to do with periods of hypomanic symptoms which are brief, and they don’t last as long as full depressive or hypomanic episodes.
Mixed Features: Has to do with the occurrence of combined symptoms of opposite mood polarities during hypomanic, depressive and manic episodes. It is noted by sleeplessness, enhanced energy as well as racing thoughts. Additionally, the individual may feel irritable, hopeless, suicidal and despairing.
Rapid Cycling; this has to do with experiencing more than four mood episodes in a time frame of 12 months. For the episodes to be seen as unique episodes, they must stay for a specific number of days. It is more likely for women to experience a pattern of rapid cycling. Rapid cycling enhances the possibility of intense suicidal attempts and depression. Antidepressants have sometimes be linked to extending or triggering the rapid cycling period. Nonetheless, it has not been confirmed yet as the theory is still undergoing study.
Some possible symptoms of bipolar disorder
The following are some of the symptoms that show the possibility of bipolar disorder in an individual. They include;
- Overconfidence and Grandiosity
- Frequent sadness and Easy Tearfulness
- Requiring minimal sleep to feel rested
- Uncharacteristic moments of aggression and anger
- Inattention and confusion